Jessica J. Lin and Alice T. Shaw
Recent years have borne witness to the development of numerous anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for patients with ALK-rearranged non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib, a multitargeted ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor, was the first ALK-targeted agent tested in the clinic. In randomized phase III trials, crizotinib showed superior efficacy compared with standard first- and second-line chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC,1,2leading to the widespread adoption of crizotinib as the standard of care for this molecular subset of lung cancer.
Rafael Rosell and Niki Karachaliou
Knowledge of cancer genome landscapes has improved tremendously through application of next-generation sequencing technologies1,2; however, genomic analysis frequently focuses on the static view of the primary tumor genome at the time of diagnosis and, therefore, provides limited information on therapy-induced changes over time. Peripheral blood provides sources of cancer-derived material, such as circulating tumor DNA, which could reflect features of the current status of the primary tumor and its metastatic deposits. Thus, liquid biopsy is a means of providing dynamic assessment of tumor genomes.
Tobacco use is well known to be the most common cause of cancer in populations in which its use is widespread.1 More recently, excess body weight has been identified as an important cause of cancer incidence and mortality (Table 1).2-4 The population-attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer incidence, including all cancers in Table 1 except those in the prostate and liver, as a result of high body mass index (BMI) has been estimated to range from 4% to 6% in high-income countries and remain lower than 1% to 2% in moderate- or low-income countries by using BMI estimates from 2002 and cancer incidence data in 2012.
Steven C. Kao and Michael J. Boyer
Recognition of the role and importance of driver mutations in malignancy has had a major impact on the management approach for many cancers. In the case of non–small-cell lung cancer, our understanding of molecular alterations has resulted in significant advances in the treatment of subgroups of patients, such as those whose tumors have an EFGR mutation or ALK or ROS-1 gene rearrangements. For tumors with sensitizing EGFR mutations, there is strong clinical evidence that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib significantly prolong progression-free survival (PFS) compared with platinum doublet chemotherapy.
Marc Carrier, M.D., Alejandro Lazo-Langner, M.D., Sudeep Shivakumar, M.D., Vicky Tagalakis, M.D., Ryan Zarychanski, M.D., Susan Solymoss, M.D., Nathalie Routhier, M.D., James Douketis, M.D., Kim Danovitch, C.C.R.P., Agnes Y. Lee, M.D., Gregoire Le Gal, M.D., Philip S. Wells, M.D., Daniel J. Corsi, Ph.D., Timothy Ramsay, Ph.D., Doug Coyle, Ph.D., Isabelle Chagnon, M.D., Zahra Kassam, M.D., Hardy Tao, M.D., and Marc A. Rodger, M.D., for the SOME Investigators*
Venous thromboembolism, which comprises deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the third most common cardiovascular disorder.1-3 It is classified as provoked when it is associated with a transient risk factor (e.g., trauma, surgery, prolonged immobility, or pregnancy or the puerperium) and as unprovoked when it is associated with neither a strong transient risk factor nor overt cancer.