Drivalos A1, Papatsoris AG, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Dimopoulos MA.
During prostate carcinogenesis the cellular adhesion molecules, i.e.; integrins and cadherins mediate aberrant interactions between glandular epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix. Several integrin α subunits are downregulated, while β subunits are up-regulated. The expression of several cadherins and catenins has specific prognostic value. There is an association between the expression of the E-cadherin/catenin complex and high grade prostate cancer. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of integrin antagonists are ongoing with promising results. In this article we update the role of integrins and cadherins in prostate carcinogenesis and evaluate the therapeutic potential of their manipulation.
Bourdoumis A1, Papatsoris AG, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Skolarikos A, Deliveliotis C.
PCA3 is a prostate specific, nonprotein coding RNA that is significantly over expressed in prostate cancer, without any correlation to prostatic volume and/or other prostatic diseases (e.g. prostatitis). It can now easily be measured in urine with a novel transcription-mediated amplification based test. Quantification of PCA3 mRNA levels can predict the outcome of prostatic biopsies with a higher specificity rate in comparison to PSA. Several studies have demonstrated that PCA3 can be used as a prognostic marker of prostate cancer, especially in conjunction with other predictive markers. Novel PCA3-based nomograms have already been introduced into clinical practice. PCA3 test may be of valuable help in several PSA quandary situations such as negative prostatic biopsies, concomitant prostatic diseases, and active surveillance. Results from relevant clinical studies, comparative with PSA, are warranted in order to confirm the perspective of PCA3 to substitute PSA.
Skolarikos AA1, Papatsoris AG, Alivizatos G, Deliveliotis C.
Recent developments in genetics and molecular biology have led to an increased understanding of the pathobiology of renal cancer.
Thorough knowledge of the molecular pathways associated with renal cancer is a prerequisite for novel potential therapeutic interventions. Studies are ongoing to evaluate novel anticancer agents that target specific molecular entities.
This article reviews current knowledge on the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of sporadic and inherited forms of renal cancer.