Jorge D. Ramos and Evan Y. Yu
Testicular germ-cell tumors (GCTs) represent one of the few solid tumors in which the majority of patients with metastatic disease are cured. In 2015, it is estimated that there will be 8,430 new occurrences and only 380 deaths as a result of testicular cancer.1 Treatment for testicular GCTs involves radical orchiectomy in almost all patients, regardless of the extent of disease. Subsequent treatment options, which depend on disease stage, include active surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Michalis V Karamouzis and Athanasios G Papavassiliou
It has long been shown that many of the presently used anticancer drugs exert their effects partly through modulating the activity of vital transcription factors. The intricacy of transcriptional regulation still represents the main obstacle for the design of transcription factor–directed agents. Systematic mapping of tumor-specific transcriptional networks and application of new molecular tools have reinforced research interest and efforts in this venue. The case of breast cancer is discussed as a representative example.
Argiris A, Karamouzis MV.
Induction therapy followed by definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has emerged as an option for the treatment of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In this setting, the most studied induction regimen is docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF). However, the role of induction therapy remains to be fully validated by studies comparing TPF followed by CRT versus CRT alone. Novel combination regimens that incorporate molecularly targeted agents are increasingly being evaluated in the induction therapy setting.
M. V. Karamouzis, P. A. Konstantinopoulos and A. G. Papavassiliou
In their recent clinico-pathological study, Revillion et al.  nicely report the profile of ErbB protein receptor family ligands in a rather large number of breast cancer cases. These results combined with other recently published work highlight the importance of the multilevel complexity of ErbB receptor activation (e.g. different potential dimmers, multiple actively participating ligands, various downstream signaling pathways).
Karamouzis MV, Konstantinopoulos PA, Papavassiliou AG.
In his review of trastuzumab, Hudis (July 5 issue) notes that major research efforts are focused on identifying new predictive markers for tailored decisions regarding cancer treatment. The ErbB receptor family has a key role in carcinogenesis. Among its members, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) are now successfully targeted by biologic agents used in cancer therapeutics. However, the limited efficacy of trastuzumab in some patients with breast cancer indicates that other factors besides HER2 status are important for the proliferation of breast-cancer cells.