Howard L. Kaufman
The landscape of therapeutic options for patients with cancer has changed dramatically in the last decade. Advances in understanding the role of driver mutations in mediating tumor growth and progression, coupled with the development of molecular inhibitors for defined mutations, has given rise to a new field of cancer therapy that is often termed precision medicine or precision oncology.1
In a review article published in the February 2014 issue of Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, Drs Tara Gangadhar and Robert Vonderheide of the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, describe the adverse-event profiles for several novel immune therapy approaches for cancer, and discuss the appropriate management of patients receiving these therapies.
Scott M. Hammer, M.D., Magdalena E. Sobieszczyk, M.D., M.P.H., Holly Janes, Ph.D., Shelly T. Karuna, M.D., Mark J. Mulligan, M.D., Doug Grove, M.S., Beryl A. Koblin, Ph.D., Susan P. Buchbinder, M.D., Michael C. Keefer, M.D., Georgia D. Tomaras, Ph.D., Nicole Frahm, Ph.D., John Hural, Ph.D., Chuka Anude, M.D., Ph.D., Barney S. Graham, M.D., Ph.D., Mary E. Enama, M.A., P.A.-C., Elizabeth Adams, M.D., Edwin DeJesus, M.D., Richard M. Novak, M.D., Ian Frank, M.D., Carter Bentley, Ph.D., Shelly Ramirez, M.A., Rong Fu, M.S., Richard A. Koup, M.D., John R. Mascola, M.D., Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D., David C. Montefiori, Ph.D., James Kublin, M.D., M.P.H., M. Juliana McElrath, M.D., Ph.D., Lawrence Corey, M.D., and Peter B. Gilbert, Ph.D., for the HVTN 505 Study Team*
The epidemic infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is now in its fourth decade, with an estimated 2.5 million new infections occurring annually worldwide.1 The number of newly infected persons, although diminishing, outpaces the number of patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy. Despite a number of successful prevention interventions that have been reported, including preexposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention,2-9 ultimate control of the HIV epidemic will most likely come only with the development of a safe and effective preventive vaccine.
Daniel S. Chen, Ira Mellman
The development of cancer immunotherapy has reached an important inflection point in the history of cancer therapy (reviewed in Mellman et al., 2011). Durable monotherapy responses are consistently being reported for a broad range of human cancers with several different agents (Hamid et al., 2013a, Herbst et al., 2013, Hodi et al., 2010, Topalian et al., 2012b), providing a compelling argument that cancer immunotherapy is active in a range of indications beyond melanoma, a disease often thought to be atypically immunogenic (Jacobs et al., 2012)
Ena Wang, Davide Bedognetti and Francesco M. Marincola
Accompanying this article are three reports involving clinical outcomes and correlative parameters associated with the administration of adjuvant melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) antigen-specific cancer vaccine for the treatment of resected, stage IB-II, non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and metastatic melanoma.1–3 The first study, directed at patients with stage III or IV M1a melanoma (N = 75), compared the earlier immune stimulant AS02B to a newer one (AS15) in a randomized, multicenter, phase II trial.1 This trial showed